UNIT 3- Architecture throughout history.

· The origins

—-(5.000.000 years ago) –> The Australopithecus appeared in central Africa, they lived in a warm climate, they didn’t know about fire yet and they move to the north and evolve into HOMO HABILIS.

—-(1.600.00-200.000 B.C) —> The Homo Erectus moves from Africa to the north, knows how to obtain fire, and invents the home.

—-(100.000-40.000 B.C) —> The Homo Neanderthalensis inhabits caverns in North Africa, Europe, and the East.

—-(40.00 B.C) —> The Homo Sapiens manifested great intellectual capacity in sculptures and shelters and his successor is the modern man.

—-(8.000-4.000 B.C)   —> Is established a sedentary lifestyle (construction of permanent housing) and agriculture, a social organization cleared the way for different types of buildings.


-Photohistory (4.000-3.000) —> the vestiges of these protohistoric architectures are the ZIGGURATS, the most characteristic buildings of ancient Mesopotamia.


– The Egyptians (3.500 B.C) —> To understand Egyptian architecture and people, it is necessary to consider the Nile River. The river and the sun are the most important axes for the Egyptians. The temples and the pyramids are the most characteristic buildings of them.


-The Greeks (1.200-146 B.C) —> The Greeks learned from Egyptian architecture and sculpture. Greeks architecture expresses the search for equilibrium between vertical (columns) and horizontal (beams of the entablature) load-bearing elements.The polis, temples, theaters and stadiums and the houses were the most characteristic buildings of the greeks age.


-Romans (1.100 B.C) —> Settlement of Latins in the center of the Italian peninsula. Roman architecture is the architecture of the interior closed space, but also of the exterior space on a grandiose scale. They discovered concrete and they did great engineering works. Civil works (such as bridges, aqueducts, and sewage networks), public buildings  (thermal baths, circus. amphitheaters, and naumachia), cities (with two main orthogonal streets: CARDO and DECUMANUS), religious buildings and domes, and the Domus and the Insulae were the most characteristic buildings of the Romans age.