UNIT 4- Architecture throughout history.

Middle ages and high middle ages—-> (6th Century A.C) —> The Byzantine. Their architecture is preeminently religious with an emphasis on the interior, being the exteriors very discrete. Hagia Sophia and some military architecture are the most characteristic buildings in these ages.

—-(7th Century A.C) —> Pre-Romanesque.This period has as a basis a pyramidal system of vassalage and control of territory. In this architecture, castles were also developed. The Lombards were Romanized populations and converted to Christianity in the 5th century. The Visigoths developed ecclesiastical architecture. The Carolingians were characterized by the desire to reaffirm classical art in order to emulate the Roman Empire and for the first time, monumental buildings were built again, like Westwerk that were an innovation. The Saxons (Otonians) collected the Carolingian stylistic and cultural reminiscences and they contributed to the innovation of the architecture with the use of religious galleries and tribunes.


Islamic—- (8-15th Century A.C) —> A common feature of Islamic architecture is the use of towers (defensive elements) and water. New architectural types of them are the Mosques, baths, and ornamentation (Muqarnas)


Romanesque—-(10-12th century A.C)  —> It is associated with the art of Normans. They used the semicircular arches and the Roman vaults.


Gothic—-(12-15th century A.C) —> Their art was also considered as the art of the barbarians. The cathedrals and the civil buildings are the most characteristic constructions of the Gothics.


Renaissance — (15-16th Century A.C) —> The church suffered a crisis, an important urban culture emerged, humanism started being used as a philosophy, there was interest in the recovery of Romans and a new architecture had to have clear decipherable numerical proportions. Some of the most highlighted architects in this period were Brunelleschi, Alberti, Palladio, and Michelangelo.


Baroque —-(17-18th Century A.C) —> Baroque architecture and the subsequent rococo is an effort to obtain the maximum possible effects from the molded space, the manipulation of light, color, and sensual detail. The structure took a back seat. The focus was on the visual effect and decoration. In urban planning, the idea of the focal point, of the route, of the symbolic square is born. The main models and revolutionaries architects of this period were Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini. The Rococo is an artistic fashion born in the French courtly environments and it is distinguished by frivolity and superficially of decoration faithful to themselves, with the aim of surprising and ostentation. 


Neoclassic—- (18-19th Century A.C) —> The neoclassical style was linked to the idea of public service and educational functions of the buildings. It was in this context that the museum was born with a didactic function. Some French architects reinvented architecture of pure geometric forms to express the interior functions and proposed an architectural revolution being in. way pioneers of modern architecture. Etienne Louis Boullé and Claude Nicolas Ledoux were the representatives of this new «talking architecture».


19th Century — There was the industrialization of the western world and it increased the population and a migratory phenomenon towards the cities, which were left insufficient. The architecture of industrialisation is related to new construction typologies.


20th Century-—Art Nouveau, Modernism, Liberty, Jugendstil —> (New art) It is characterized by clean lines, curves, and undulations inspired by nature and oriental art, with geometric formal simplification towards two-dimensionally. The formal expression is nourished by Japonism.

—-The Avant-garde —>(Expressionism, Cubism, Futurism) After the First World War, the avant-garde movement moved further away from the crude reality of the world and nature (Surrealism, abstractism…)

—-Post-war period (1950) —> In the 50s and 60s the architecture was dehumanized and they considered that the function must be adapted to the needs of the human being within its cultural tradition. The architecture since the 1960s was revolutionary, utopias, and proposals, where the personal individuality of the architect begins to have more expressions.